Last Updated: 2-2023
With climate change accelerating, flooding is becoming a major global risk. Urban areas in particular are vulnerable to flooding due to their high population and infrastructure density. At the same time, water-run off is increased because of soil sealing and soil compression. Building flood resilient cities is therefore becoming increasingly important to mitigate floods, withstand the increased threats and recover from these events more quickly while reducing the human and economic cost of floods in the process.
This research presents a process of developing an open semantic 3D city model based on CityGML that can be connected to the results of a flood simulation model to uncover the direct and indirect effects of future floods on a city, its inhabitants and its critical infrastructure and quantify the effects in a Flood Resilience Score. In addition, this study explores the potential of using the developed model as a spatial planning support tool for city planners to prioritize the redevelopment of certain areas and to test new spatial design decisions. The open semantic 3D city flood model of Rotterdam is created by obtaining and validating 3D city data, enriching the CityGML files with additional building and infrastructure information, and connecting the model to flood simulation results. The Flood Resilience Score is then developed by quantifying the direct and indirect impacts of flooding on buildings, households, and critical infrastructure points to evaluate the flood resilience of the neighbourhoods of Rotterdam. Lastly, a spatial planning support tool is developed to evaluate the flood resilience of the new environmental plan ‘Nieuw Kralingen’ in Rotterdam.
Overall, the process development in this research can help cities better understand the impacts of flooding and change their spatial planning accordingly.